Corresponding author. Corresponding author. Jin Young Kwak. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Vandermeer is an Assistant Professor of Radiology, and Dr. Thyroid nodules are extremely common. Ultrasonography of the thyroid gland has emerged as an important diagnostic tool in this process. Sonographic features of malignant and benign thyroid nodules have been established, but these have variable specificity and sensitivity.
New onset of swallowing difficulties New onset of hoarseness History of external neck irradiation during childhood Firm, irregular, and fixed nodule Presence of cervical lymphadenopathy swollen, hard lymph nodes in the neck Previous history of thyroid cancer Nodule that is "cold" on scan shown in picture above, meaning the nodule does not make hormone Solid or complex on an ultrasound Thyroid hormone levels are usually normal in the presence of a nodule, and normal thyroid hormone levels do not differentiate benign from cancerous nodules. However, the presence of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism favors a benign nodule that's why a "warm" or a "hot" nodule favors a benign condition. Thyroglobulin levels are useful tumor markers once the diagnosis of malignancy has been made, but they are non-specific in regard to differentiating a benign from a cancerous thyroid nodule. Ultrasound accurately determines thyroid gland volume, number, and size of nodules, separates thyroid from nonthyroidal masses, helps guide fine needle biopsy when necessary, and can identify solid nodules as small as 3mm and cystic nodules as small as 2mm. Although several ultrasound features favor the presence of a benign nodule, and other ultrasound features favor the presence of a cancerous nodule, ultrasound alone cannot differentiate benign from malignant nodules.
Откуда-то из глубины ее существа донесся древний и могучий сигнал тревоги. Николь опасалась, что вот-вот взвизгнет или закричит. - Элли, - произнесла она негромко. - По-моему, на сегодня с меня .